sixteen tu The fresh REFLEXIVE PREFIX Within the ZULU – A TYPOLOGICAL Perspective Sonja E. Bosch In this article I shall have a look at the fresh new root of the reflexive prefix when you look at the Zulu, using extra attention with the procedure of grammaticalization in which lexemes end up as grammatical formatives. As reflexivization in a few Bantu dialects was compared, this article are typically in the type of an excellent typological study. In the Lehmann s () discussion of phenomena that are commonly referred to as reflexive, it is interesting to remember which he assumes on five categories of reflexives, particularly 0) autophoric nouns which can be typical nouns including human body, breath, heart, head one ple, into the Sanscrit the brand new noun dtman meaning air, spirit, and also in Basque, brand new noun burua meaning head, are used to show the equivalent of English thinking. Autophoric nouns made use of because the reflexives are often accompanied by a possessive pronoun, like in another example out-of Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani energy:acc set:part placing electricity into the himself (ii) reflexive nouns which can be nouns saying the definition mind and absolutely nothing else, such as the German selbst myself and you may Finnish itse once the represented in the after the advice: 344
17 German (2) Ich komme selbst I am future me Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-quand? want-2.sg-int ticket-acc.pl self-all-poss.2.sg How would you like new entry for yourself? For the dialects such Finnish, Hungarian and you will Turkish reflexive nouns bring possessive affixes, whilst sugardaddie odwiedzajÄ…cych in most other dialects including Italian language and/or Romance dialects, these types of nouns aren’t normally combined with possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns having the key function of it comes back into the topic, such as the Italian language sich within the: Italian language (4) Sie waschen sich He’s washing by themselves (iv) verbal reflexives that are verb affixes showing that the step somehow has an effect on the niche, as with the following advice: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-select he watched themselves Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di guy wash-refl-after dark guy washed themselves Lehmann () emphasizes your boundaries within groups is water and claims these four categories of reflexive factors are actually towards a size regarding growing grammaticalization.
Put simply, one can discover so it since an effective continuum from changes that become represented the following: 345
18 Lexical item Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) brings advice in various languages so you can train the changes having taken place otherwise are taking place from just one group so you’re able to the following. The entire process of change is affirmed from the Faltz () just who, regarding their morphological difference in a few chief types of reflexives, specifically NP-reflexives which could incorporate a moderate morpheme acting as lead of the reflexive noun statement, and you may verbal reflexives, comprising reflexive pronouns which are cliticized on the verb, remarks: Dialects will get change from you to definitely pole into almost every other, actually, instance path is actually always on NP-reflexive pole on verbal reflexive pole. During the Zulu reflexiveness are knew by means of an excellent prefix and therefore personally precedes the fresh new verb stem. This new reflexive prefix try invariable fit, and therefore it’s an effective morphological contour which remains lingering regardless of the category that the antecedent belongs. This can be obviously represented on after the advice in Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya the latest-kid he-themselves strike the guy hit themselves (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini the latest-lady she-herself-get in-mirror The lady observes herself about reflect During these instances -zi- is the reflexive morpheme and measures off hit and discover are directed back on the latest respective grammatical subjects, that is, son and you can girl. It’s fascinating one within the generative degree, a significant perception is established towards fundamental build regarding sentences which includes reflexives, particularly NP1 – V – NP1. On top, eg a property is actually ungrammatical regarding Bantu languages if your a few NPs was co-referential and identical in shape, e.g. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho duped Sipho During the Zulu like a phrase is done grammatical from the insertion of an excellent reflexive prefix about verb and the removal of your own co-referential noun. e.grams. 346